Mavri Thalassa

KÜÇÜK ASYA’DA GREK OKULLARI

Leon Maccas

Kaynak :Küçük Asya Helenizmi

Yayına hazırlayan S. Çetinoğlu

BATI KÜÇÜK-ASYA’YA İLİŞKİN GREK OKUL İSTATİSTİKLERİ

  1. a) Bali-Kesri sancağı (Brousse vilayeti)

 

Okullar                                                 Öğrenciler                                      Öğretmenler

—————————————–     ——————————————-       —————————

Yerleşim

Yeri             Erk. okulları Kız okulları  Toplam    E. Öğrenciler  K. öğrenciler  Toplam      Erk.   Bayan  Toplam

–                    –                    –                   –                  –                     –                   –              –          –            –

Bali-Kesri           16                  3                 19             1.235               265             1.500         31         7          38

Aivali                    9                 8                  17            2.635            1.790            4.425         49       34           83

Artaki                  29               19                 48            4.060            2.015             6.075         85       42         127

Adramit                 8                4                  12               905               510             1.415         24       11          35

Sindirgi                 1                –                     2                80                  60                140           2         2            4

Kemer                   6                1                    7               565               120                685         14         3           17

Panormos              5                1                    6               760               200                 –             15        4           19

Gionen                  2                “                    2               280                 “                  280            5        “             5

———–  ———— ————— ————–  ————–  —————  ——–  ——-  ———-

76              37                113          10.520            4.960          15.480        225     103        328

 

b)Smyrne vilayeti

 

Smyrne               50              29                  79          12.110            7.805           19.915        266    203        469

Nympheon           6                3                    9               545              295                 840          14        8          22

Vurla                   13               3                  16             1.699              890             2.589           41      17         58

Tchesme             19             10                  29              2.787           1.498             4.285           45      25         70

Kara-Vourna       17              8                   25                937              355              1.292           22       9         31

Sivrissarion          5              4                      9                910              370              1.280           18       9         27

Eski Phocee         9               5                   14              1.205              750              1.955           24     13         37

Menemeni           5               4                      9                785               610              1.395           19     10        29

Kouss-Adassi      5               3                      8                625               345                 970           19     11        30

Vaindir               3            1                       4                 385                225                 610              9        5        14

Thira                  1             1                       2                 230               200                  430              5       4           9

Odemission       3             3                       6                  325              230                   555              9       7        16

Pergame          19             8                     27               1.883              730                2.613            46      19        65

———-  ————  ——————  ————–  ————–  —————-   ——–  ——-  ——–

155          82                    237             24.426         14.303              38.729          537    340      877

 

Magnesie        22           11                     33               2.855           1.670                 4.525           59       28        87

Soma                1              1                      2                  100                50                    150             4         2          6

Kirkagatch       3              2                      5                   355             287                    642              8        6         14

Axari                3              2                      5                   535            525                  1.060              8        9         17

Kassamba        4              3                      7                    385            217                     602              9        8         17

Giordes            4              2                      6                    215             90                      305              6        2          8

Esme                1              –                      1                      70              –                          70              2        –           2

Demirdji          2              –                      2                     205             –                         205             3        –            3

Salihli              5             2                      7                     290           150                      440              8        4         12

Koula              3             2                      5                      445          230                       675              9       4          13

Ala-Chehr       1             1                      2                    3000          346                       646              6       6          12

———  ———-  —————-  —————-  ————–     ——————-  ——- ——– ———

49           26                    75                   5.755       3.565                   9.320           122     69         191

 

Aidin            13             5                     18                   1.225          430                   1.656             35     15           50

Sevke           16             9                     25                   1.455        1.195                  2.650             52     24           76

Tchina            1             –                       1                        50            –                           50               2      –               2

Vozdoğan       1             –                       1                      110            –                        110                2      –               2

Nazlı               3            3                       6                      305           216                     515                8       5           13

———–  ———-  —————-   —————–  ————–  —————-  ———–  ——-  ——–

34        17                     51                  3.145        1.835                   4.980              99    44          143

 

 

Muğla               4          1                       5                     238              80                     318                 7       2            9

Mermeris          1           –                      1                       80               –                         80                 1        –            1

Bodroum          4       275                      1                       40               41                        5                 6        3           9

Muilassa           6           1                      7                     465              80                     545               10        2         12

Koidje              3           –                       3                     170                –                      170                 5        –            5

Makri               4            3                     7                     830             223                  1.053               15        6         21

 

22            6                   28                   2.058             523                  2.681              44          13      57

 

 

Denizli            3            3                     6                      220              230                    450                 5           4         9

Sara-Keui        1            1                    2                      250              100                    350                 4            2         6

Buladan           1           –                     1                         35                –                        35                 1            –          1

Tsala                1           –                     1                         35                –                        35                 1            –          1

Karagatch        1           –                     1                         25                –                        25                 1            –          1

Davas              1           –                     1                         20                 –                     220                  1            –          1

———-  ———– —————-  ——————  ————–  ————— —————  ———- —-

8           4                  12                       585              330                    915                13           6        19

 

268       135                403                  35.969         20.556               56.525              815       472   1.287

 

Batı Küçük-Asya’nın toplamı

 

Bali-Kesri      76        37               113                   10.520           4.960                15.480              225       103     328

Smyrne-

Aidin            268      135               403                   35.969         20.556                56.525              315      472   1.287

 

Batı küçük-

Asya            344       172               516                  46. 489         25.516                72.005           1.040      575   1.615

 

VI.- KONSTANTİNİYE VE ASYA’DA ONA BAĞLI OLAN YERLERDEKİ

GREK OKULLARININ İSTATİSTİĞİ

 

  1. a) Konstantiniye vilayeti

 

Pera              28           19               47                     6.820           3.487                 10.307             253        75      328

Stamboul      20             9               29                     3.061          1.584                    4.645               76        37      113

Petit-

Tchekmedje 24              8               32                    1.225              683                    1.908               35        14        49

———  ———-  ———–  ——————-  —————-   ——————-  ———–  ——–  ——

72           36             108                   11.106           5.754                  16.860             364      126      490

 

Tchataldj    227             9               36                     1.862              844                    2.706                43        19       62

Grand-

Tchekmedje 13             7               20                        930               655                    1.585               20         11      31

Silivrie         12             3               15                        725               420                    1.145               21         11      32

———–  ———- ————-  ——————  —————-   ——————-  ————  ——–  —-

51           19               71                     3.517            1.919                   5.436                84         41   125

 

Skutari         12             8               20                     1.803            1.102                   2.905                 46        42      88

Kartal             5            5                10                        492              634                   1.126                  10        10      20

Guebize         2             2                 4                     4.320               260                      690                   7           6      13

Iles des

Princes          8             3                 1                     1.123               590                   1.713                  62       121     74

Beikoz          4             3                 7                         205               188                      393                    6           3      9

Chili             3             3                 6                         408               398                      806                    7           6     13

———–  ———-  ————-   ——————   ————–     ——————   ————–  ——- —-

34            24               58                       4.461           3.172                   7.633                138         79   217

————-   ———-  ————   ——————-  —————    ——————   —————  ————

Konstantiniye

vilayeti   158             79            237                      19.084        10. 845                 29.929                586       246   832

 

  1. b) Nicomedie bağımsız yönetimi

 

Gheive      11              2             13                          1.031              284                      315                  19           5    24

Kandra      15              2             17                             838              105                      943                  21           2    23

Nicomedie  3              3               6                             222              205                      427                    9           6    15

Kara-

Moursal     15           11             26                          1.039              696                    1.735                  29         18    47

Ada-Bazar 14             5             19                             825              441                    1.266                  23           7    30

Yalova       12             7            19                              944              572                    1.516                  16           9   25

———-  ———- ————-  ————————   ————–  ——————  ————-  ————

Nicomedie 70           30          100                            4.899         2.303                     7.202                117        47  164

 

c)Dardanelles bağımsız yönetimi

 

Dardanelles 3            3               6                               570            365                         935                  12         9    21

Ezine           4            3               7                               393            246                         639                    8         5    13

Bairamitz     1           1               2                                 75               65                        140                     1        2      3

Bigha           9           5             14                               735             235                        970                   18         7    25

Aivadjik       7          2                9                               325            135                         460                   10        2    12

———-   ———-   ———-                 ————–  ————–          ————-     ————  —–  —-

24         14              38                            2.098         1.046                      3.144                   49      25    74

 

Konstantiniye ile Asya’da ona bağlı olan yerlerin toplamı

 

Kontsan.    158       79            237                          19.084      10.845                     29.929                 586   246   832

Nicomedie

(İsmid)        70       30            100                            4.899         2.303                     7.202                  117      47   164

Dardanel.  24       14             38                            2.098           1.046                     3.144                    49      25      74

———  ——–   —————-  ———————  —————-  ———————  ————-  —— —–

Konstantiniye

ve  Asya’da

ona bağlı olan

yerler      252    123            375                         26.081           14.194                   40.275                 782   318   1.070

 

VII.- KUZEY KÜÇÜK-ASYA’DAKİ GREK OKULLARININ İSTATİSTİKLERİ

 

  1. a) Kastamuni vilayeti

 

Kastamuni 10      2              12                              635                 220                        855                   19       4        23

Sinope        11     1              12                              581                 250                        831                   17        3       20

Gagrai-

Bolou          6      2                8                              510                 170                        680                   14        5       19

——–  ——-  —————  ———————-  —————-   ——————–  ————–  ——- —–

Kastamuni 27      5              32                           1.726                 640                    2.366                    50       12      62

 

b)Trebizonde  vilayeti

 

Trebizonde56      4                60                        3.635                   850                    4.485                 107        18   125

Surmena      9      5                14                           688                   264                       952                   23          8     31

Platana      23      4                 27                        1.168                   153                    1.321                   46         4     50

Vakfı-

Keber          1      1                   2                             60                     25                         85                     2          1      3

Kourele       1       –                   1                             70                      –                          70                      2         –       2

Tripolis     25       2                 27                        1.677                   125                   1.802                    49         4    53

Kerassunde 69     2                 71                        4.160                   375                    4.535                 134         9  143

Ordou         42     1                 43                         1.614                  200                    1.814                    50        3    58

Djevizlik     35     –                 35                          1.515                    –                      1.515                    47         –    47

———  ———– ————–        ——————-  ——————  ——————-  ———— —– —-

261    19              280                       14. 587              1.992                  16.579                  460      52  512

 

 

Fatsa             9      –                   9                             295                   –                         295                       9       –       9

Ounie        110     7                 17                             560                 260                       820                     11      7     18

Chassaba     28     1                 29                             860                   60                       920                     32      2    34

Samsoun   168    22               190                          7.393              1.215                    8.608                   240    41  281

Pafra            71     7                  78                          3.270                 340                   3.610                      97   12   109

————  —— ——–  —————— ———————-  —————–  ——————–  ————  —– —-

286   37                323                       12..378              1.875                 14.253                   389    62  451

 

Rize                3    –                      3                             170                 –                           170                     7      –       7

Athenes          1    –                      1                               45                 –                             45                     1       –      1

Hopa               1    –                      1                               35                 –                             35                     1       –      1

Of                   2     –                     2                               70                  –                             70                     2       –     2

—— —-            ————                    ————-  —————   —————  —————-  ——–

7      –                     7                             320                  –                           320                   11      –    11

 

Ghioumous-

hane             16       1                  17                             640                80                          720                 26     3    29

Toroul        109       1                110                          4.713                50                       4.763               174     2  176

Siran            14        –                  14                              410                –                            410                 18     –     18

Kilkit            3        –                     3                              150               –                            150                   5     –       5

———-  ———  ————    ————————   —————–  —————–  ————–  — —–

142       2                144                            5.913             130                     6.043               223     5   228

————-  ———-  ———–  ————————–   —————–  ——————  ———— —– —-

Trebizonde

Vilayeti       696     58               754                         33.198              .997                 37.195             1.083  119 1.202

 

KUZEY KÜÇÜK -ASYA NIN TOPLAMI

 

Kastamuni    27        5               32                            1.726                640                 2.356                   50    12       62

Trebizonde 696       58            754                          33.198             3.997             337.195              1.083  119  1.202

——–  ——-  ————–                  ————–      ———–        ————-          ——– —–  ——-Kuzey Küçük-

Asya           723       63            786                          34.924             4.637               39.561               1.133  131 1.264

 

VIII.- ORTA VE GÜNEY KÜÇÜK-ASYA’DAKİ GREK OKULLARI İSTATİSTİKLERİ

 

a)Brousse vilayetinin doğu ve güney kısımları

 

Brousse          9         9              18                               873              580                  1.453                     23    15     38

Kios               1         1                2                               300              250                     530                       8       5     13

Michalitsi    19         5              24                            1.318               475                  1.793                    32       9     41

Mudania        8         7              15                            1.243            1.007                  2.250                    22      25    47

Kremasti        3         1                4                               220              120                     340                       7        2      9

Adranos         2          –                2                                 50                –                         50                        2        –      2

——–  ——-   —————         ——————   ————–     —————–         ———- ——  —

42        23             65                            4.004            2.432                 6.436                     94      56  150

 

Kioutahia       6          4             10                               905               480                  1.385                     23     11    34

Afyon-

Karahissar      2          1               3                               130                 25                    155                       3        1      4

Bilecik        13          7             20                             1.514              545                 2.059                     32      15    47

———-  ——–

Bursa

Vilayeti        63        35             98                             6.553           3.482                10.035                   152     83  235

(doğu ve

güney

kısımları)

 

b)Ankara vilayeti

 

Ankara        2           1               3                               225              140                     365                      6        3      9

Kırşehir      3           –               3                                 85                 –                         85                      3        –       3

 

Cesaree        26          7             33                            1.345               475                  1.820                   40       10    50

Divelion         8          2             10                               395                 50                    445                    11         2    13

İncesu        2          1              3                               220                 80                    300                       3         2     5

——–  ——–   ————-   ———————–  —————–  —————       ————  —— —–                    36        10            46                             1.960               605                2.565                     54         14  68

 

Yozgat        10           2            12                               390                 60                   450                      13          3  16

Akdağ Madeni            4           1              5                               610                 70                   680                      13          2  16

Sungurlu  2           –               2                                105                 –                     105                        3          –    3

Çorum       4            –              4                                 175                –                      175                       5          –    5

——— ——–     ————     ———————   —————–   —————   ————–   ——  —                   20           3            33                              1.280              130                1.410                     34         6   40

———-  ——–  ————–     ——————–    —————-    —————   ————–   —— —

Ankara

Vilayeti        61        14             75                              3.550              875                4.425                     97      23  120

 

  1. c) Konya vilayeti

 

Konya           7           4             11                             1.045         1.075                  2.120                    22       15    37

Antalya           6            3               9                                661            395                  1.056                    18          7   25

Burdur      1            1               2                                160            140                     300                      4           3    7

 

Isparta            4            2               6                               715             220                     935                    14          4   18

Niğde            48            17            65                             4.840          1.220                6.060                  124     41   165

———-   ——–  ————-    ———————–  —————  ——————-  ———– —— —-

Konya

Vilayeti        66            27            93                            7.  421          3.050             10.471                   182    70   252

 

  1. d) Sivas (Sebastie) vilayeti

 

Sivas             22             1            23                                  891               30                  921                     33      1    34

Amassie        88           22          110                               3.056            759                3.815                   108    26  134

Şarkikarahisar         7     1             2            73                               3.081            110               3.191                   109      3  112

Tokat              67           12           79                               2.476             402              2.878                     80     14    94

———  ———-  —————-   ———————     ————   —————-     ———– —— —-

Sivas

Vilayeti         248           37        285                                9.504         1.301             10.805                  330     44  374

 

Orta ve güney Küçük-Asya toplu sayılar

 

Bursa            63          35          98                                6.553          3.482            10.035                   152   83  235

Ankara           61          14          75                                3.550             875              4.425                     97   23  120

Konya             66           27          93                                7.421         3.050            10.471                   182   70  252

Sivas               248          37        285                                9.504         1.301            10.805                   330   44   374

——–  ——–   —————–    ——————-  —————  ——————  ————- —-  —-

Orta ve güney

Küçük-Asya   438         113        551                             27.028        8.708             35.736                   761  220   981

 

IX.- KÜÇÜK-ASYA GREK OKULLARI İSTATİSTİKLERİNİN TOPLAM SAYILARI VE SONUÇLAR

 

Batı Küçük-

Asya               344           172      516                             46.489     25.516              72.005             1.040  575   1.615

Konstantiniye

Ve Asya’daki

ona bağlı olan

yerler              252        123         375                              26.081    14.194              40.275               752  315   1.070

Kuzey Küçük-

Asya               723          63        786                               34.924      4.637              39.561            1.133  131    1.264

Orta ve güney

Küçük-Asya   438        113         551                              27.028     8.708               35.736               761  220       981

———- ——– ————-                 —————  ————–    ————-        ——  ——  ——-

Küçük-Asya 1.757       471      2.228                             134.552    53.055           187.577           3.686  1.244  4.930

SONUÇLAR

Küçük-Asya’ya ilişkin olarak, bu okul istatistikleri ile nüfus istatistikleri  karşılaştırıldıklarında şu sonuçlara varılıyor:

  1. Tüm Küçük-Asya’da, Grek öğrencilerin sayısı (187.577),-Takımadanın (1.982.376 olan) nüfusu hariç olarak- Grek nüfusun %9.5’ini buluyor., bu da özgür ülkelerde bile nadiren ulaşılan bir yüzdedir,
  2. Küçük-Asya’nın her bölgesinde, ufak tefek farlılıklarla, aynı oran söz konusudur (Batı Küçük-Asya’da % 9.2;

Kuzey Küçük-Asya’da %10.5; Konstantiniye ve Asya’daki ona bağlı olan yerlerde %8.5; Orta ve güney Küçük-/Asya’da %10.1);

  1. Çoğu yerleşim yerlerinde oran daha da etkileyicidir: Artaki: %11.1- Adramit:% 10.9-Pergame: %10.3-Magnesie:%11.7-Axari:%11-Denizli: %11.9-Makri:%11.4-Grand Tchekmedje:%13.6-Kartal:%11.6-Iles des Princes:%15.8-Beikoz:%15-Nicomedie:%11.9-Trebizonde:%11.6-Samsoun:%11-Afioun Kara Hisar:%12.9-Angorah:%11.6-Kır chehr:%11.8-Cesaree:%13-Konieh:%24.5-Nigdi:%10.9-Sivas:%12-Sarhikarahissar:%11.5.

Ve  buna   toplam 2.228 okulun ve sayıları, bay ve bayan öğretmenler dahil olarak, 4.930’a varan öğretim kadrosunun giderlerinin karşılanması için  Küçük-Asya’daki Grek topluluklarının her sene  kendi öz kaynaklarından toplam 168.332 TL., yani  yaklaşık dört buçuk milyon Fransız frangı ödemiş olduklarını

eklersek, Grek okul örgenleşmesinin ve Küçük-Asya’daki helenik eğitimin gelişiminin gerçekten eşsizliğini

tümcelerle göstermeye gerek kalır mı?  Ve bu devasa çabanın, savaşın arifesinde, daha da yoğunlaşmak üzere olmuş olduğu da düşünülürse, Bay Bertrand’ın , bu konudaki, daha önce belirtmiş olduğumuz,  hayranlığını anlamamak olanaklı mıdır? 1  Ve, bu bölümü tamamlamak için,  Türkler ile Almanların, daha ilerde açıklayacağımız üzere,  bu devasa çabaya karşı şiddetle tavır almalarının nedenlerinden birini açıklamak gerekiyorsa, sözü bir kez daha Bay Alaux’ya vermekten daha iyisini yapabilir miyiz?  Seçkin yazarın aşağıdaki satırları, her halükarda, sunmuş olduğumuz tüm tanıklıkları taçlandırmaktadırlar ve, tüm  Fransızların ve tüm Fransız kültürünün dostlarının gözünde, böylesi bir ideale sahip olan ve böylesi bir çabayı sergileyebilmiş olan bir ırkın tümüyle özgürlüğüne kavuşturulması uluslararası gerekliliğini ortaya koyan çarpıcı bir kanıt niteliğindedirler:“ Grek okul örgenleşmesi her zaman Fransız  fikirlerinin, dilinin ve etkinliğinin güçlü ve yararlı bir vasıtası olmuştur;  Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda nerede bir Grek okulu açılsa, bu okul mütevazi bir ilkokul bile olsa, orada fransızca öğretiliyordu. Kız ya da erkek orta öğretim kurumlarının çoğu gerçek greko-fransız lisesi modelleriydiler.”

FOTOĞRAF: Bugün Atatürk İzmir Lisesi’nin kullandığı bu bina 1922 yılına kadar İzmir Kız Rum Okulu’ydu.